(b) Mouse and rat: Intravenous injection may be given into a vein at the root of the tail by a fine needle. Under light ether anesthesia, as soon as the regular respiration is establi­shed, 0.5 to 1.5 ml material is dropped from a Pasteur pipette into the nares. When tissue is well-ground, more saline is added and allowed to stand for a short time. European hedgehog bred in captivity is suitable for propagation. Liquid cultures are inoculated through a medium- bore needle. The location of the apex beat of the heart is defined by digital palpation and thereafter, a needle (No. The litters should be handled with great care and cleanliness to avoid biting from their mothers. But for these studies to be scientifically valid, laboratory animals … Continue reading → Posted in Animal Microbiology, Clinical and Medical Microbiology | Tagged biomedical research, in vivo | Leave a comment. Preparation of Microbiology Samples in Animals Any specific agents of interest in the diagnostic investigation should be mentioned on the submission form; some agents have requirements (eg, anaerobic culture, special media) that would not be used in most laboratories unless the pathogen was cited as a differential diagnosis. Care and Management of Laboratory Animals 2. Intravenous administration of specimen or culture is made carefully with fine needle. Particularly in microbiology, laboratory, guinea pig is quite useful: (a) To isolate both human and bovine types of tubercle bacilli; (b) For “Virulence” test for diphtheria bacilli and tetanus bacilli; (c) To obtain “Complement” for serological test; The material obtained by the microbiology service is also used for undergraduate and postgraduate training in infectious diseases. The needle passes into the dermis only, as near as the surface. Subcutaneous inoculation is made in the loose tissue about the flank or into the abdominal wall. A common procedure includes first growing (culturing) and then identifying bacteria, viruses, and fungi. General categories used to describe the microbiological status of laboratory animals are gnotobiotic, SPF, and conventional ( Foster 1980; Trexler 1983). The diagnostic schemes of various diseases used by the laboratory include specific molecular genetic tests of viruses. By this method, specimen is directly introduced into the circulation. For studies of Distemper virus in ferret and New Castle virus and other virus infections in fowls. The blood is allowed to drop into a sterile flask containing glass beads. What are the factors which induce heart failure? Experimental Procedure Inoculation of Material: At first the animal is clipped and its flank is shaved to remove the hair. Every case should be provided with a holder or socket for a small card of 6-9 cm for record of the experiment (date, identifying marks of animal, nature of experiment and specimen). This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. These can be controlled by 0.5% insecticidal sprays or 10% DDT. The water is led in a 6-9 mm glass tubing through a rubber bung to an accessible position inside the cage; the outlet tubing is about 3 mm. The primary role of the clinical microbiology laboratory in any infection control program is to provide up-to-date clinical microbiologic data for use in the surveillance of nosocomial infections and identification of potential outbreaks. Larger volumes of blood can be collected by cardiac puncture: After lightly anaesthetizing with ether, the animal laid on its back with its front limbs drawn forwards. By Kunstyr, Ivo. Take the help of an assistant who holds the tail of the animal with the left hand and gently raises the hind limbs from floor of the cage. In this article we will discuss about the Laboratory Animals:- 1. In-house microbiology can be a valuable asset to practitioners, providing quick results with minimal investment. Diagnostic Laboratory. The basic group of blood tests for pets includes total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine, alanine amino transferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). For culture the spleen gives the best results, but the other solid viscera may also similarly be used. With a sharp downward movement inclined towards the midline is then made that takes the needle point through the ventricular wall. This board is then placed in a large enameled iron tray. Uses: Rabbits are mainly used for diagnostic purposes. A maximum volume of 0.5 ml can thus be inoculated. A 1 ml all-glass tuberculin syringe, fitted with short needle No. Laboratory diagnosis of human or animal rabies has to be based on the following findings: Demonstration of virus antigens (Ag) or nucleic acid from brain , spinal cord, salivary glands, saliva, cornea or skin by means of immunofluorescence or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The skull is perforated with a trephine or mechanical drill. Crush It! The latter category is composed of animals that have an undefined or nominally defined microbial flora that includes common rodent pathogens. When the animal is inoculated with highly patho­genic organisms the worker should always wear rubber gloves. Suckling mice of 48 hours old or less are emplo­yed for the isolation of herpes simplex, enteric and other arbo-viruses. One is to obtain licence from the Home Department for using them on experimental purposes. Failing this, the operator should use a mask. The Animal Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) fulfills its mission by … The vein is incised with a small sharp sterile scalpel. Farmers and other food producers use the results of this work to keep animals healthy and meat products safe for human consumption. When What Who Comment; 13 seconds ago: 19th&20th Century Orthodox Christian writings (list) - diff. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. Diagnostic Microbiology for Laboratory Animals book. Protecting penguins from avian malaria. Paperback, 9781560813545, 1560813547 Alternatively, depilating powder (mixture) may be used to remove hair. Usually white guinea pigs (300-400 g) are used. Animals belong to mammalia class Animal is held by assistant as above and the material is inoculated in the peritoneum in the midline in the lower half of the abdomen. Before installation of the material, one eye may be scarified by anesthesia. If you have a new continuous cough, a high temperature, or a loss or change to your sense of taste or smell, do not come to our hospitals.Follow the national advice on coronavirus (COVID-19).. About 1/8 to 1/6 inch point of needle is introduced through skull. They are also used for production of immune sera used in diagnostic purpose. Such animals may be separated and investigated for the cause of disease. The fowl is anaesthetized and placed on its right side. Coccidiosis (Protozoan disease) and pseudo tuberculosis (caused by Yersinia pseudo tuberculosis) are also common natural disease of animals. Available from Amazon. Share Your PPT File. Testes lie in abdomen. Yeast: Origin, Reproduction, Life Cycle and Growth Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, How is Bread Made Step by Step? The tail vein is dilated by placing in water at about 45°C. The importance of animal disease diagnostics laboratories is not a very recognized area of animal production but they are essential to animal health. The animal lies on the back and the testes are made to descend on scrotum by steady pressure on the belly. A suitable animal board or table, on the top of which the carcase can be fixed in the supine position should be used. You are on page 1 of 70. The animal is lifted gently supporting its weight with other hand placing the palm uppermost under the hind quarters. The wild armadillo, therefore, should be screened for mycobacterial infection and kept in quarantine for 3 months before inoculation. A 100 ml bulb pipette (vide Fig. Clean cages should be used. 100% found this document useful (3 votes), 100% found this document useful, Mark this document as useful, 0% found this document not useful, Mark this document as not useful, Save Animal Experiments in Medical Microbiology For Later. The laboratory also performs molecular genetic analysis of microbial pollution in food products and environment. Lysol, however, should not be used in cleaning the cages of rabbit because its smell distresses the animals. Diagnostic microbiology. The lungs are then removed with fresh instruments by cutting each organ free at the hilum. Rabbits may also be inoculated in frontal lobe of brain, at a point 2 mm lateral to the median plane joining the two external canthi of the eyes. The specimen is then rubbed into the scarified area with the side of the scalpel. Thereafter, the blood is transferred to a sterile 500 ml flask or bottle containing glass beads for defibrination. Not more than 5 ml can be inoculated intraperitoneally. Streptococcal and staphylococcal infections, distemper (virus) and foot rot (caused by mites). White or light coloured animals are marked by staining the fur with a strong dye (e.g. The hair over the ear is removed by dry shaving with a sharp razor. Diagnostic Microbiology for Laboratory Animals Diagnostic Microbiology for Laboratory Animals. Amounts up to 5 ml can be introduced. Metal instruments are sterilised by boiling in a sterilising bath, e.g. When the doe (female) is on heat, vulva and vagina become red, swollen and moist. The ensiform cartilage is now tightly gripped with the help of a pair of strong forceps, and by means of a sterile pair of strong scissors a cut is made on either side of the chest through the costal cartilages. After soaking the carcase in antiseptic solution as before it is nailed to a rough piece of board of the appropriate size. Humidity of animal house ranges between 45% for rabbits to 65% for mice. The spleen is removed with fresh instruments and placed in a sterile Petri dish. Agglutination (clumping) is the oldest antibody-based reaction in medical diagnostics and is currently used in haematology and diagnostic microbiology. To protect animal health, human health and food safety through unparalleled diagnostic laboratory services and professional expertise that allow early detection and monitoring of animal diseases, thereby providing support for animal owners and industries, veterinarians, animal research scientists and educators as well as state and federal animal health programs. Contributor: Kunstýř, Ivo. It is done mostly in guinea pig and some­times mice are also intraperitoneally inoculated. Save Save Animal Experiments in Medical Microbiology For Later. Volume of 50 ml of blood per kg of body-weight can be obtained. The liquid media are inoculated with a small fragment of the tissue. The organ is cut open with sterile instruments and a small portion which is taken up with a stiff wire and smeared on the surface of solid media. Which part of the male reproductive system store the sperm? Laboratory Animal Facilities: Work with pathogens in laboratory animals poses special risks. Postmortem demonstration of Negri bodies in brain tissue. Protozoan diseases (coccidiosis toxoplasmosis), pseudo tuberculosis, S. typhimurium, abscess in lymph node (Streptococcus group C), haemorrhagic septicaemia (P. multocida) and viral pneumonia and paralysis. This diagnostic microbiology manual is designed to be used in conjunction with lecture textbook and other resources. When intravenous injection is to be given, care must be taken that no large particles are injected. Clinical thermometer is liberally smeared with sterile petroleum jelly and the blunt-ended rectal thermometer is introduced into the rectum or vagina to a depth of about 3 to 3.5 cm. A 0.45 ml of material is introduced into the occipital lobe of brain by a needle (cut down to 5/18 inch). ISBN number: 3-437-30692-8 (Stuttgart) or 1-56081-354-7 (New York). To see nose movements of the animals and to see any animal remaining quiet and still. Bed bugs, fleas, lice, mites, ticks, flies, mosquitoes and cockroaches may all infest the animal house. They are also used for production of immune sera used in diagnostic purpose. Share Your Word File Because many of the same diagnostic techniques are used in human and animal diagnostic laboratories, the text is presented with this in mind. Table 18.1 shows important data’s on some of the animals. an enameled “fish-kettle”. Several parallel scratches are made by a sharp sterile scalpel, just enough to draw blood. Are you sure you want to remove Diagnostic microbiology for laboratory animals from this list? The GD Animal Health laboratory uses various methods to trace veterinary pathogenic bacteria. The suspen­sion must be centrifuged at a low speed and the supernatant fluid is used for intravenous admini­stration. It also provides laboratory supervision over genetically modified organisms in food products and in animal feed. Microbiological techniques are different in many ways when compared with other laboratory disciplines. Explosive epizootics have been observed with S. typhimurium infection in which practically the whole of a colony of animals have been destroyed. Usually, a volume of 0.2 ml is injected. These specimens are inoculated with a medium- bore needle but in case of tenacious material, like pus and sputum, is injected through a wide-bore needle. A maximum volume of 0.5 ml can thus be inoculated. While conducting post-mortem examinations, one should be familiar with various animal diseases, such as worm infestation, coccidiosis, pseudo tuberculosis, etc. The ear is held forward and the vein is made prominent by means of a small spring clip at the base of the ear. Share. From an architectural and engineering standpoint, these advances are having a tremendous impact on modern day microbiology laboratory design and build. The Laws, Regulations, and Guidelines for Animal Research in China Mainland (China), Japan, and South Korea (Korea) will be discussed in this chapter. Content Guidelines 2. The heart is now exposed. Small quantities of green stuff are also to be supplied. It should be large enough for movement and some exercise of the animal. 187 pages. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Laboratory Diagnosis of Leptospirosis. Blood can thus be withdrawn and inoculated into various media. Veterinary Microbiology is concerned with bacterial and viral diseases of domesticated vertebrate animals (livestock, companion animals, fur-bearing animals, game, poultry, but excluding fish) that supply food, other useful products or companionship. Diagnostic tests are essential tools for confirming the health status of animals and identifying pathogens. Hair is clipped. Laboratory animals in most countries are protected by the Law “Cruelty to Animals Act”. 0% 0% found this document not useful, Mark this document as not useful. This method is mainly used in testing cultures of the diphtheria bacillus for toxigenicity. The peritoneal cavity is opened with second set of instruments and the abdominal wall is reflected to each side. (With Methods)| Industrial Microbiology, How is Cheese Made Step by Step: Principles, Production and Process, Enzyme Production and Purification: Extraction & Separation Methods | Industrial Microbiology, Fermentation of Olives: Process, Control, Problems, Abnormalities and Developments. About 20-30 ml blood may be collected from the ear vein of a large rabbit. It is important for not only animal producers, but also consumers to be aware of this resource. Post-mortem examination should be done routinely for all experimental animals, whatever may be the cause of death. Rat is handled in the same way as guinea pig by experienced operator. Now in its fourth edition, Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits has become a standard text for veterinary pathologists, laboratory animal veterinarians, students, and others interested in these species. Necropsy should be performed carefully in the usual way. By the help of right finger and thumb a fold of skin close to the head is held. The use of microbial cultures is common to help in the clinical identification of pathogenic microbes. Isolation of virus from brain tissue and/or saliva. Embed. A long median incision is now made through the skin of the abdomen and chest and then the skin is widely dissected, exposing the abdominal and chest muscles. Animal room should be air-conditioned; or at least ten changes of air in each hour are needed. After removing from cage, the animal is placed in a non-slippery place as it otherwise feels insecure and becomes frightened. The bird is placed on its back, ventral side upper­most, and stretch its neck over the edge of the table. Laboratory Diagnosis of Bacterial Diseases, Laboratory Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). Expensive equipment and materials are not usually necessary for recovery of common aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacterial pathogens, such as Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, and coliforms. Only one eye is inoculated by dropping a drop of material through a Pasteur pipette. Sternum is raised and pulled towards the head. Vein may be distended by rubbing with a piece of cotton wool or by holding the ear on an electric bulb (heat dilates blood vessels). Small fragments of tissues such as brain, spleen, liver and kidney are first homogenized by crushing these materials with a suitable diluent in a tissue grinder. A wide range of tests is available, part of which was developed by GD Animal Health. Bacteria can be tested to see which antibiotics should be effective in eliminating them from the body. No lists yet! The tail vein is dilated by placing in water at about 45°C. Care and Management of Laboratory Animals: The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Conventional rodents are generally considered unfit for research and hence, will not be … A 0.03 ml of fluid is injected directly by a one ml syringe at a site midway between the outer canthus of the eye and the point of attachment of the pinna of the ear about 3 mm from the midline. It is commercially in the form of cubes or pellets. Intravenous inoculation is done in rabbit, guinea pig, mouse and rat as follows: For this, the marginal vein of the ear is most convenient. The area of skull is disinfected as above. Diseases. The animal is anaesthetized and then fastened to a board with the body axis quite straight and the fur clipped over the left side of the chest; the area is shaved and then sterilised with alcohol and ether. Alert Coronavirus / COVID-19. When the necropsy has been properly performed, it is not necessary to scar the surface of the heart. After fixing the testes by an assistant, skin is disinfected and then 0.2 to 0.4 ml of inoculum is directly introduced into the centre of a testis by a hypodermic needle. Posted on September 5, 2017 by MicrobiologySociety. 20 gauge mounted on a syringe) is inserted at this point between the ribs. Where cultures are to be made, first to immerse the animal completely in weak Lysol solution (3%) for a few moments. A layer of absorbent material (e.g. The first example of serum diagnosis underlying this principle was applied in the diagnosis … However, there are specific classes of microbe that require culture within live animals. Cages may be boiled in soapy water; alterna­tively, to be kept immersed in a solution of disinfe­ctant such as 3% Lysol. For the success of this operation very sharp needles are essential. Advances in science and technology have led to the development and widespread clinical application of molecular diagnostics, digital microbiology, mass spectrometry (MS), MALDI-TOF, and total laboratory automation (TLA) systems. Having a laboratory perform these tests can help point to a diagnosis, particularly if the animal has vague signs and a history that make it difficult to determine the problem. Record number: 12850 ... (Society for Laboratory Animal Science Gesellschaft für Versuchstierkunde). Animal rooms have to be constructed to appropriate standards and containment levels, just as laboratories. Other diseases include: Ectromelia (mouse pox, caused by a pox virus related to the vaccinia virus), Streptobacillus moniliformis, infection, viral infections and Taenia taeniaeformis infection (large cysts in liver). 100% 100% found this document useful, Mark this document as useful. Intravenous injection may be given into a vein at the root of the tail by a fine needle. Although results are not obtained in a short time, the time required to perform the test is very short. Share Your PDF File Big Nate: What's a Little Noogie Between Friends? Read reviews from world’s largest community for readers. Since the principal application of necropsy is to recover organisms previously injected into the animal, hence, the post-mortem examination must be conducted with strict aseptic precautions. Use of microbial cultures is common to help students to Share notes in Biology disinfe­ctant as..., just as laboratories cage of buck ( male ) modified organisms food. 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